Berlin lies in northeastern Germany in the center of the European continent, 70 kilometers away from the western Polish borders. It is situated between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel to the west of Berlin.
Area and Population
At the end of 2018, the city-state of Berlin had 3.748.148 registered inhabitants in an area of 891.1 km2. Berlin is the capital city of Germany and the seat of the government. Foreigners mount to 13.5% of the population of the city; they migrate from more than 185 states. The Turks present the majority of the immigrants (approximately 250,000).
The overwhelming majority of the population are non-religious. The largest religious denominations are the Protestants (19.4%), the Catholics (9.4%), and Muslims (8.8%).
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin.
The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Russian, Arabic, and Polish. About 100,000 people of Arab origins dwell in Berlin, most of whom migrated from Palestine and Lebanon.
Berlin lies in the vast ice age glacial valley of Spree River which flows through the center of the city. The elevation of the city is 34 meters above sea level. With 66 meters of height, the Kreuzberg is the highest natural elevation in Berlin’s inner districts. . Berlin is 180 km away from the southern shores of the Baltic Sea, 190 km away from the northern borders of the Czech Republic, 177 km away from the eastern former internal German borders, and 70 km away from the western Polish borders. It is by far the largest city in Germany. About one-third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes. In fact, among the city’s main topographical features are the many lakes, the largest of which is Lake Müggelsee, Krumme Lanke, and Grosser Wannsee
Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate. This type of climate features warm summers with high temperatures and cold winters but not rigorous most of the time. Rainfall is average all year long, though it rarely snows.
First documented in the 13th century (1244) as a city, Berlin then witnessed the major historic changes that Germany passed through.
After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, Germany was divided to East Germany and West Germany and likewise the city was divided; West Berlin and East Berlin, and later further divided to four parts, and all four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin: East Berlin was under the Russian control, Southwest Berlin was under the American control, West Berlin was under the British control, and Northwest Berlin under the French control.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. In August 13, 1961, the establishment of the famous Berlin Wall started around West Berlin. West Berlin was forced to exist as an island under Federal German within its twin East Germany. Berlin was completely divided. It was difficult for Easterners to obtain visas – a must to visit their relatives in the west. In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. With it fell all barriers separating Easterners from their relatives in the west of the city. Democratic Germany fell a year later; on 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became a reunified city.
Form of Government:
Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs or districts (Bezirke) and 96 subdistricts or neighborhoods (Ortsteile). Each borough is governed by a borough council including the borough’s mayor. Federalism rules in Germany starting from municipalities to states and cities. Every state has its private constitution, and it has a semi-autonomous rule as per its internal system.
Berlin’s economy is dominated by the service sector, with more than 80% of all companies doing business in services, banks, and insurance. The strong scientific and technological economic sectors in Berlin open wide horizons for the future. One fifth of the economic power in Berlin is in the cultural and creative sector as the number of students in the city is 135 thousand receiving their education in 31 universities and professional and technical colleges.
Berlin is a world city of tourism noted for its diverse sights and attractions:
- Charlottenburg Palace: It is the largest surviving royal palace in Berlin. Its baroque style and stunningly lavishly decorated interior make it one of the major attractions in Berlin. It was built at the end of the 17th Century, and it is most famous for the gilded statue on its dome that rotates in the wind.
- Victory Column in Berlin: This monument, which was built in June 1873, is one of the main and famous landmarks and tourist attractions in Berlin. It was designed to commemorate the victories achieved by Germany in its military wars against France, Denmark, and Austria; thus was its name. This colossal column includes a spiral staircase of 285 steps to climb to the top of the column and take a view over Berlin.
- Zoologischer Garten: Zoo Berlin is Germany’s oldest and most famous zoological garden. It was inaugurated in 1844, and it is home to the world’s largest variety of species. Almost 20500 animals of around 1500 species live in the 35-hectare zoo.
- Berliner Fernsehturm: Berliner Fernsehturm or Television Tower is situated in Alexanderplatz Square in the locality and district of Mitte. With its height of 368 meters (147 floors), it is the tallest structure in Germany and the second-tallest structure in the European Union.
- Brandenburg Tor or Brandenburg Gate: One of the best-known landmarks of Germany, the Brandenburg Gate is a neoclassical monument built in 1791 to hail the city as the capital of Prussia. Though the gate was meant to represent peace, it was the sight for major historical events and wars throughout its existence.
- The New Museum or Neues Museum: The museum was officially reopened in 2009. This magnificent site exhibits the papyrus collection of the Egyptian museum, and Prehistory and Early history collections besides several classical items. The artifacts it house includes the iconic bust of the Egyptian queen Nefertiti and the famous Neanderthals skull.
- Berlin Wall: It is one of the major and most famous symbols of Berlin as it represents its complex and ancient history. Today and after three decades of its collapse, some remnants remain in various place in the city.
- Reichstag Building: This historic edifice housed the German parliament until 1933 when it was severely damaged after being set in fire. In 1999, it once again became the meeting place of the German parliament. This first-rate-tourist attractions has a mixture of modern and ancient architectural styles – as the majority of Berlin edifices.
History of Islam in Germany
Muslims’ first arrival in Germany was not through conquests or through migrations to settle in that country. It was rather through strong (Abbasid-German) ties which commenced between the fifth Caliph Harun al-Rashid and Charlemange by the end of the 2nd Hijri Century. Then the Germen invaded the Islamic countries, especially the Levant, when the Crusade campaigns were launched. With the flop of the Crusade campaigns, they left embittered with wrath and grudge.
The Germen tried again and contacted Muslims in the wake of World War I, when the Germen allied with the Ottoman Turks.
Following these ties between the Germen and Muslims, the view of the formers towards Islam changed resulting in the release of a great number of Muslim prisoners, some of whom preferred to stay in Germany. Later on, a number of Muslim tradesmen and workers from Turkey, the Maghreb states, and Yugoslavia left for Germany, and eventually, a number of native Germen embraced Islam.
Moreover, several Muslims of Germen origin fled from communist Russia to Germany, in addition to a number of Afghan and Iranian tradesmen, and they settled there. As such a multinational Muslim community was formed and could later on establish an entity for itself and integrate in the German community until it became a part of it.
The Wünsdorf Mosque, at the Halbmondlager (Half Moon) POW camp, was Germany’s first mosque, built in July 1915 for Muslim prisoners arrested by the German troops during the war. They were some 15000 Muslim soldiers from Maghreb, Algeria, and India among other countries.
During their detention period, the prisoners tried to organize their lives and practice their religion. The prison staff took the needs and privacy of the prisoners into consideration to achieve the goals of their country including mobilizing them to fight in their lines, and in summer 1915, a mosque – the first in Germany – was completed with a cupola, minaret and prayer room. The wooden circular mosque had an area of 18 meters and an elevation of 12 meters.
Until the end of World War I, Muslims in Wünsdorf could practice their religious rites freely. However, the plots came to no avail, and the mosque was demolished just 15 years after its inauguration. When the war was over, the Muslim prisoners were set free; some of them remained in Germany, while others returned to their homelands.
In the post-World War II era and the accompanying prosecutions and sufferings, Muslims in Berlin in particular tried gradually to redress their conditions and lives, and as such the Islamic life started to take shape. Moreover, active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration in the 1960s and 1970s, likewise, adding strength and thrust to the Muslims already in the region.
With the increase of number of Muslims, it was normal that the number of mosques increase as well as their affectivity. This increase in number allowed Muslims to be an influential element in the economic sector as well as in the political and social arena.
Muslims in Berlin
Germany is a state of multiple religions and cultures by virtue of the country’s constitution that defends this diversity and multiplicity and guarantees freedom of religion. This constitutional right helped many Muslims to integrate in their new homeland and practice their religion freely.
The number of Muslims is continually increasing. Some statistics show that the Muslim community is the most growing community, though no official studies or polls are available to specify the number of Muslims and their increase percentage which is estimated by 8,8%. Likewise, the number of mosques is greatly increasing. In Berlin, for example, the number of mosques rose from 70 to 98 recently.
Main Mosques in the German Capital – Berlin:
There are about 100 mosques in the German capital. Ranging in style from classical to modern, these Islamic places of worship have become an integral part of Berlin’s history and cultural fabric. They also reflect the cultural and religious diversity of the city. A new study carried by the International Quran News Agency (IQNA) showed that the number of Muslims in Berlin is increasing. The study also reported that the diversity of Islamic communities in Berlin are also increasing; however, most of the mosques are being built in the western areas, as 20 new praying places were added in 2018 as compared to new areas in 2017. This study was carried under the title “The Life of the Islamic Society in Berlin, upon the request of the officials in charge of the cultural affairs in Germany.
The Most Prominent Mosques:
- Wilmersdorfer Moschee (Berlin Mosque): It is the most ancient standing mosque in Germany in Wilmersdorfer Moschee. It was inaugurated in 1928. It was designed by Karl August Hermann who modelled it on the Taj Mahal in India. In 1993, it was listed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites.
- The Sehitlik Mosque and Center: The second-largest mosque in Germany, the Sehitlik Mosque has room for 1500 worshippers. It was built in the 1980s on the grounds of an old cemetery, and was later vastly enlarged. One of the specific aims of the Mosque is to present Muslim life in Berlin and to encourage communities to get to know each other. To make this possible, the mosque offers various events on this topic, as well as daily guided tours of the building.
- Khadija Mosque: It is located in Pankow in Berlin, and it is the first mosque in former East Germany. It was opened on October 16, 2008 and can hold 500 worshippers.
- Imam Jaafar Sadeq (PBUH) Mosque: The three-story building was previously a commercial property. It was then turned to a mosque with rooms for infrastructure and a praying hall in the loft.
- Al Nur Moschee Berlin
- Dar Assalam Mosque in Berlin
Turkish–Islamic Union for Religious Affairs (DITIB): DITIB is the largest Islamic organization in Germany, with 950 mosques and member organizations across the country. Yet their engagement with the refugee response has been limited because Muslim organizations are smaller and less politically connected than Christian ones, according to DITIB former Secretary-General Bekir Alboga.
Germany’s Catholic and Protestant churches hold a status called (KöR), a type of registration that allows them to own land, make government contracts, and even collect tithes through state taxes. Islamic groups, in contrast, are mostly only (e.V), a type of voluntary association akin to a tennis club or bridge society. DITIB is trying to found a registered Muslim welfare organization at KöR level, Alboga said, but has not yet been successful.
DITIB is widely viewed as suspicious in Germany because of its link to the Turkish government. DITIB imams don’t have to be German citizens, and they receive direct salaries from Diyanet, the Turkish government’s religious authority.
Alresalah Mosche Center in Berlin: It is an officially registered charity institution for teaching the Arabic Language and the Holy Quran, and to guide youths and families. Upon its establishment in 1986, it worked humbly in a small building with only a group of doctors until it was expanded, and a larger site was inaugurated. It was registered as a comprehensive institution in 2012.
The center carries several activities pursuant to its goals which are registered in its constitution:
Performing the five daily prayers and Friday Prayers with prompt interpretation to the German Language, in addition to daily lectures on the Prophet’s (PBUH) biography, interpretation of the Holy Quran, and Islamic jurisprudence.
The center has a school specialized in memorizing the Holy Quran besides several social activities such as lessons and sessions for women supervised by the women section in the center. Courses in cooking, sewing, makeup, and children upbringing are also given in the center. Visits are moreover paid for nearby hospitals and schools to care for Muslims and their children and to address their problems.
The center offers reconciliation services for protagonist individuals and families, and holds weddings, consolations, and various other ceremonies. It further contacts German circles and the public civil society and charity institutions with the aim of integration and dialogue among religions.
Al Bukhari Society and Mosque: The project was undertaken by seven Muslim Arab and German women. The idea of this religious society came after detecting the sufferings of the Muslim community year after year and noticing the points of power and weakness in the Islamic work whether in mosques or in the European society in general and the German society in particular. Search was underway to find a suitable place for this project in one of the suburbs of Berlin in which Muslim families dwell and which lacks a mosque or even an Islamic school. Thus this two-story building was chosen. The project is expected to serve 1000 Muslim families.
Below are the main goals of the society:
-Establishing a school for the Holy Quran that targets 400 young students and Quran sessions for women and men.
– Establishing a school for teaching the Arabic language with its various levels for native speakers and others.
-Establishing a praying room where Friday Prayers and Preach are held with prompt interpretation into the German Language for non-Arabs.
– Issuing publications on Islam and the greatness of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).
– Establishing a large library for students where they can carry their studies and researches. The books are in several languages so that the library would be a reference for all.
– Participating in addressing the many family problems among Muslims.
– Dialogue and Educational Rehabilitation
Dar Al Hikma Center
Islam Conference in Berlin:
The idea of this conference was given birth on the hands of Markus Kerber (currently responsible for the Heiimant portfolio) when he was head of the political section in the Interior Minister while under Interior Minister Wolfgang Schauble back in 2006 as a “Dialogue Forum” discussing the relation between Islam and the state.
The aim of the conference of Islam which was last held in 2018 was to find the suitable milieu for coexistence and integration of Muslims in the German culture besides dialogue between the state and the Muslims residing in Germany.
About 240 participants shared in the conference including representatives of the German authorities and Islamic societies and organizations. Independent Islamic personalities as well as a group of secularists also partook in the conference.
The conference shed light on several important points including measures that must be taken to train mosque imams. In this perspective the head of the Islamic Central Council, Ayman Mayzek called on Muslims to take tangible steps to train imams in Germany, in addition to bettering working conditions and equality between Muslims and others.
The conferees tried to reach a formula that unites all Muslims despite their diverse affiliations and races. However, despite the participation of DITIB Mosque and Society, the Central Council, the Islamic Council, and the Islamic Cultural Centers Society, these do not mount to 20% to 25% of the Muslims in Germany. As for the rest, they are unorganized especially liberal Muslims and Muslims who tend towards secularism.
In fact, some traditional organizations have political ties with foreign states, and they welcome imams from these countries as well as financial aids. This kind of affiliation forms an obstacle before the development of Islamic work and sows division and discord.
Notice that before the conference was convened, a group of politicians, journalists, and scholars launched the “Secular Islam” initiative with the following announcement: “We express our worry over the increase of anti-Islam sentiments and our growing fear from mounting Islamophobia. This group sought to denounce religious and conservative societies and further refused to discriminate between believers and others.
The Museum of Islamic Art (Museum für Islamische Kunst):
It one of the most important museums in Germany despite its relatively small area as compared to the other well-known museums in Berlin. It presents a vast and diverse collection of cultural productions of the Middle East civilizations including architectural ornamentations, works of art, masterpieces, as well as jewelries, rare manuscripts, and other items that document the development of the Islamic civilization in the Middle East and Europe.
The piling of the Islamic collection currently exhibited in the Islamic Art Museum goes back to the onset of the 19th Century when all masterpieces in the palaces of princes in the various German boroughs were collected – including paintings, statues, and masterpieces to be exhibited in one museum in Berlin to make the dream of Emperor Fredrick II come true. However, the collection did not find rest except with the onset of the 20th Century, as it was relocated from one museum to another until Pergamon Museum was inaugurated on the Museum Island in October 18, 1904 and gathered the collection.
Long waiting lines crowd the gates of the Museum of Islamic Art. Its visitors include school and university students, history lovers, and searchers for knowledge. About 900 thousand tourists visit the museum annually, 60% of them come from outside Germany especially Arab tourists. The museum will move inside Pergamon Museum and will triple its exhibition space by 2020.
Main Masterpieces of the Museum:
The pièce de résistance in the collection is the ornately decorated yet no less monumental façade from the palace of Mshatta, which was reconstructed in the mid Eighth Century. The Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II presented this colossal piece of history as a personal gift to former German Emperor Wilhelm II in 1903.
Among the several archaeological groups from major excavations in the Islamic world the finds from the 9th-century caliph capital of Samarra (Iraq) stand out, highlighting the importance of the Iraqi city in international trade in the 19th Century.
Among the 93,000 highlights the museum houses are the Babylon Gate of Ishtar, the unique dome from the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain), centuries-old pages of the Koran, and 13th-century prayer niches from Kashan (Iran) and Konya (Turkey). Most loved by visitors is the finely painted wooden paneling of an upper-class house from Aleppo (Syria) from the early 17th century – it is the oldest surviving exemplar from the Ottoman World.
It is made of wood with multi-layered painting using a variety of pigments and metal coatings to express a variety of themes. These themes were based on contemporary Islamic book illustration encircling Quranic Ayahs, Prophetic Traditions, Arabic proverbs and poetry, and Persian principles.
The museum displays a rare collection of oriental carpets. Some of the oldest pieces in the collection come from the property of Wilhelm von Bode, the founder of the Islamic Art Museum who furnished the museum with 26 rare historical oriental carpets.
Though the museum was closed with the triggering of World War II in 1939, many of its most exquisite items, especially the oriental carpet collection have experienced extensive trauma and damaged by fire and bombing. The dividing of Germany by the Allies after the former’s defeat in the war led to dividing the museum too to two parts, one in West Berlin and the other in East Berlin. After the fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 and the unification of Germany, the museum restored its unity too, and it was reopened after renewal in June 2001. As such the museum rose to become among the international museums and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Islamic Schools in Berlin:
It is evident that the number of Muslims in Berlin is incessantly increasing what is reflected in an increase in their needs on various levels.
One of the main needs is that parents would like their children to develop a Muslim identity, taking into consideration that any school in Germany have a curriculum comparable to the public schools.
Thus Muslims turn to private schools especially that they somehow find their desire fulfilled in these schools – for example the Islamic Elementary School in Berlin which is recognized by the state. The school’s 14 teachers are Muslims, and the overwhelming majority of the children are Muslims too. Most of the girls wear headscarves… These elements among others help in bringing up children according to the true Islamic religion.
State recognition means that the school has demonstrated it offers a curriculum comparable to the public schools. This means music, sports, and health education are also taught – despite the fact that these subjects are controversial among some sects in the Muslim community. The Islamic Elementary School in Berlin makes an effort to respect the religious preferences of the parents. Some instruction is separate for boys and girls, for example swimming and health education.
In principle, the school is no different than other confessional schools. Instruction is in German, as well as Arabic and Turkish for native speakers.
On the other hand, we find that a major Islamic organization in Germany has welcomed the announcement of establishing a new Islamic theology institute for training mosque Imams and teachers of the Islamic religion in Humboldt University in the capital Berlin. No doubt this institute plays an important and effective role which gives a rare opportunity to cooperate and enrich mutual knowledge between the Muslims of Berlin, the state’s authorities, and its research centers.
The Islamic theology Institute in Humboldt University will join five other universities in Berlin teaching Islamic theology, and the total number of students in the six institutes is about 2000. They will be trained to fill the gap in mosques and schools.
In addition, Berlin is witnessing an increase in the number of schools that teach the Arabic Language, and it came to include a great number of children of the Arab community, due to the increase of migration influx to Germany. These schools include the Arabic Language and Islamic education in their curricula. Some of these schools are:
Dar Al Hikma School
The Arabic School / Al Karamah
Al Nour Model School
The Lebanese League School
Al Andulous School
Al Irshad School
The Arabic Cultural School
Al Bayan School
Islamic Education Teaching in Berlin:
Fears of Islam (Islamophobia) still forms an obstacle or an impediment before a large number of people what resulted in refraining from teaching Islamic education in the German school curricula.
However, Berlin broke this barrier and sought to give a successful model in this perspective raising many controversies on Islamic instruction in German elementary schools.
However, when Berlin allowed enlisting Islamic instruction in school curricula, it took place within a definite framework set by Islamic institutions and societies. By 2001, this new curriculum came into effect under the supervision of the Islamic Federation.
The implementation of the new Islamic curricula resulted in an increase of Muslim students where Arabs form one third of the total number of pupils while the overwhelming majority are adherent to the Turkish community.
On the other hand, the number of German students in schools which adopted Islamic instruction in its classes decreased. Researchers in Islamic affairs noted that this new curriculum has many benefits including portraying the true image of Islam that manifests peace, serenity, and acceptance of others besides spreading the culture of monotheism among students in general.
Islamic Cemeteries in Berlin:
Muslims in Berlin have a real problem – they do not own a land to use as a cemetery for their dead especially that more dead Muslims are being buried in Berlin, and many prefer to bury their dead in Berlin because their relatives are there and because the costs of flying and burying their deceased in their former homelands are very high.
There are two Islamic cemeteries in Berlin; one of them lies to the west of the capital city near an old airport. The municipality in Berlin still hesitates to grant the cemetery a plot of land from the adjacent airport. The second cemetery is to the north of Berlin. It is worth mentioning that the Turkish Islamic Society had decided to open a cemetery in the capital Berlin to bury Muslim Turks.
To achieve their demands, tens of Muslim residents in Berlin’s neighborhoods demonstrated before municipalities calling on officials to respond to their demands for opening a cemetery for Muslims. This comes after the local government in Berlin accepted to open a graveyard for Muslims within a Protestant cemetery and set a budget to buy it and fund its monthly requirements.
The Holy Month of Ramadan:
The Muslims in Germany including the Muslims in Berlin try to render the Holy Month of Ramadan different and special as compared to the rest of the months of the year. Collective Iftar dinners are organized in the various mosques, leagues and associations. Moreover, politicians from all parties share Muslims in these Iftar dinners in this holy month. As Muslims had migrated to Germany from several countries. That was positively reflected in the diversified customs and food plates mirroring the different origins of the Muslim residents of Berlin.
The Holy Month of Ramadan has a major social importance because it is associated with the community spirit and feeling an important link – the common faith. Several Islamic institutions in Berlin seek to boost the community spirit through inviting non-Muslims to celebrate with them this special occasion.
Shia Islam entered Berlin in modern times. It started with the end of World War II with the migration of several Syrian and Lebanese – including a number of Shia – to work and settle there. Among them were Shia scholars who stayed in Germany for the conditions in their homelands were difficult and tough. They worked in the various fields while seizing the opportunity to spread Islam according to the Shiite sect. A number of Turkish and Iranian Shia also settled in Berlin resulting in the embrace of a great number of people Islam and the Shia sect in particular, thanks for the clear intellect of Ahlulbeit (Peace be upon them) and the tolerance and good relations its followers have with others.
The last but not least achievement for Shiites in Berlin is the membership of ten Shiites in the Central Council of Muslims in Germany.
Shia Muslims in Berlin practice their religious rituals and mark the occasions of birthday and martyrdom of Ahlulbeit (Peace be upon them) continuously – Praise be to Allah Al Mighty and the efforts of the Shiite Islamic institutions which provide the Shia and the German society with all new Islamic books translated into German. Shia Muslims in Berlin are active members in the Majlis-e-Ulama-e-Shia Europe (an Organization of Shia Scholars and Communities) – an umbrella organization for Shiite societies and institutions in the European Continent.
On the other hand, Shia Muslims in Berlin have all their rights; they are considered among the Islamic sects which were the least influenced by Islamophobia in the light of the growing extremist right speech in Germany and Europe thanks to the moderate speech of Shia authorities and their agents in Europe.
Main Shia Institutions:
- Turath Center in Berlin: It is an Islamic social institution concerned in the social and educational issues of the Shiite sect. It also cares for the Islamic family and its reform, settling familial disputes, carrying marriage contracts…. Turath Center also shows special interest in enlightening Muslim youth through giving religious and moral lessons and acquainting the German society with the morals and ideologies of Ahlulbeit (PBUH). The center further has direct contacts with the office of His Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Sistani (May Allah prolong his life span) in London and Najaf for answers for questions regarding the Islamic code of practice.
- The center seeks to deal with all the institutions, societies, and centers in Germany to convey the message of coexistence and tolerance of the True Islam to the society. The edifice of the center comprises a praying room and modern halls for lectures and courses delivered both in the German and Arabic languages.
- Imam Rida Mosque and the Solidarity League: It was established in Berlin in 1993, and it is run by scholars of Turkish origin adherent to the Shiite Faculty of Law. In the years 2015 – 2019, a new edifice was constructed that comprises several rooms for meetings and lectures in addition to a two-story-hall for performing prayers.
- Al Mujtaba (PBUH) Center – Minhaj Al Hussein (PBUH) in Berlin: It is a general social Islamic center. It carries several activities in various fields especially Islamic activities such as holding Husseini lamentation sessions and lectures on Islamic issues as well as marking the various occasions such as the birthday and martyrdom of Ahlulbeit (PBUH).
- Likewise the center holds Islamic and guidance counsels and lectures under the supervision of reverend sheikhs.
- This center is an independent entity that is not linked or under any other side, and the center is self-funded through the donations of several practicing believers.
- Islamic Conference for Shiite Sects: It was established in 2009, and it is member of the
German Islam Conference (DIK)
- Iranian Al Mustafa University Branch in Berlin
- – Islamic Iraqi Center in Berlin
- – Imam Mussa Sadr Center
- – The Prophet of Allah (PBUH) Center
- – Al Hassanain (PBUT) Center
- – Al Mustafa (PBUH) Society
- – Al Zahraa (PBUH) Husseiniyah in Berlin
- – Al Qaim Center and Mosque
- – Shiite Islamic Council in Berlin
- – Al Bahrain Socio–Cultural Center – Berlin
- – Al Irshad Society – Al Qaim Center – Berlin